African women and pleasure

I have always wondered what African women history were regarding sexual pleasure. In Yorubaland, mothers don’t talk to their girls about sex let alone the pleasure of it. And for some reason known to mothers, they want their daughters to get married and have a happily ever after type of marriage.

On my quest for knowledge, I came across an eye-opening video online about a year ago, it featured a group of older ladies from Uganda talking about labia elongation. Really? Why? Here is what I found.

In Uganda, when a child turns 13 and perhaps after her first period would be called to have the ‘talk’ about labia pulling and how to go about making sure she does it everyday for about 10 minutes – that’s a serious dedication, I think. The part of the labia being pulled is the minora – the inner layer, this is done religiously and overtime it can stretch up to 3 times or more of the original size. Local herbs is used as lubricant to ease the friction.

The person who does the pulling varies, sometimes it could be the a close friend of one’s own mother or a grandmother and sometimes a friend/school mates. A close friend who is Ugandan and went to a boarding school confirms that when she was at school, parents actively informed the school that they’d like their children participate in ‘pulling session,’ this is to make sure they continue with the routine while away from home.

I read a few online articles whereby Ugandan women fervently defended the age-long tradition as something they were really proud of and did not want WHO to mistaken it for yet another FGM.

Why is this practice? Muganda, the major ethnic group in Uganda believed active sexual life in relationships will prevent infidelity and it is important to them that both couples have fun during coitus. And in fact the women loved to make pleasure noises as a way to communicate their satisfaction to their partners.

The  belief was that long minora when clasps around penis provides soft but firm grasp – both feel the touch and the gentle friction will heighten the desire for each other. Also, as the man pulls away during withdrawal, last-minute pleasure is experienced as the elongated minora gently peels off the penis.

The practice of labia elongation is not limited to Uganda alone, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Rwanda, Burundi all do it. What do we do in Nigeria? I wish to know, seriously.

Like many other African cultures, labia elongation is being faced out because of the procedures involved. Getting other girls pulling one’s private part isn’t especially appealing these days because of increasing awareness of possible dangers such as HIV/AIDS,   Christianity has influenced many parents out of the tradition and because elongation is best done when young and children were too young to voice an opinion – rather like child abuse.

Seems people tend to agree on the benefits of having elongated labia but most disagree on the procedure. Also, speaking to a male friend who lives in Uganda, he thinks that the length of the labia varies considerably that sometimes some pulls out a little longer than others.

I wonder if there is a way of having a standard length to aim for and of course better ways of doing it to exclude children. It will be such a shame to let go of a tradition built to keep family happy together – happy couples = happy family.

It is exciting to know that African women do have a practice that celebrate sexuality and the of pleasure of it. I have heard too much of the other side.

Please do share if you know of any African women related story.

What health benefit? Coconut water not for my people


The more I learn about the world around me the more I want to know, some of the time at least.

At a recent event, a lady asks if I knew how to break a coconut, without hesitation I said  ‘oh yes.’ She was excited and said ‘thank you, w’ll need you at the tombola event’ she said excitedly. The excitement was a little too much for the offer that I thought I better explain myself just to be sure we were on the same page. In my mind, it wasn’t a big deal to break coconuts, we had about 10 coconut palm trees scattered around my parents’ farm. I had eating tens of them growing up, yes, I know a bit about coconut. Then I told Lisa all that would be needed was a hammer to crack it open and some blunt knives to take the fruit out. My friend was confused, this…

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Tradition of Orò ritual and the needless secrecy in Yorubaland

Orò is one of the important traditional religions in Yorubaland, though dying out like many other traditional cults but quite a few local towns and villages still keep the religion intact. I have watched with interest why we have troubles resuscitating traditional religions in Yorubaland, apart from christianity and islamic influence, one of the reasons why many people deviate from the indigenous religions is because of the needless secrecy attached to them and in most cases the secrets are not recorded so elders die with key messages that should have been passed on.

Early July this year, there was a big commotion in Ikeja, Lagos after the death of Oba Rauf Adeniyi Aremu Matemi. The commotion was that they had to perform Oro rituals for seven days and that restricted movement from 7pm to 7am was placed on a number of streets near to the palace, this included the Lagos popular Computer Village –  This is 2014, people.

Another rumour that sent panic to the local residents was that the during the Oro rituals, seven people will be captured to be buried with the king.

These were distressing news for everyone in the area and the rest of Lagos.

If Yorubaland is to restore the glory of worshiping our traditional religions, we have to do things differently than in the past. Traditional leaders must find ways of disseminating information to people in a way that provide comfort and made the rituals appealing.

In my village, alongside the foreign religions – most people still worship the traditional religion,  so Oro is still being worshiped just before and after hunting period – September and November, this is done for very good reasons. The ceremony though not elaborate but taken seriously.

The secrecy of Oro rituals  and *Obinrin kii r’oro – Among all of the Yoruba traditional cults, Oro is a bit different in the sense that it prohibits women from being a member, also women were not supposed to be in the vicinity during the rituals. I have been locked up many times than I cared to recall during Oro rituals in my village, during this time all I heard was the distinctive screeching sound peculiar to Oro. The sound is from a piece of bamboo and strong piece of thread, it is meant to deter women from coming to the area where the rituals was taken place.

If you fail to tell simple truth, you risked speculations of all kinds – When I was little I thought men were naked during the rituals but my father said that was not true but yet refused to disclose what the rituals was about. His explanation was that women, apparently could not keep secrets hence they were not allowed in. Really?

In my village, Oro rituals is performed late in the evening after dinner around 8pm when most people are back to their houses, most of the time it is only for an hour and even if it goes beyond, nobody really cared as it is bedtime. If a village with less than 500 people could come up with this, why was it difficult for Lagos City people to adopt this very considerable habits? Do the rituals when it is mutually acceptable time frame?

On the rumour of human heads for Oro rituals – This is an area that still very cloudy in Yoruba culture. Human beings are not used for Oro rituals, if the rumours of a person being buried with the king were to be true, this has nothing to do with Oro rituals and it is shameful that Oro rituals is being dragged into it. The barbaric act of human sacrifice during notable king burials has a long history in Yorubaland, things are changing today, while I can’t say for sure that this barbaric practice no longer exists, it should not be used to distort all the names of the traditional cults.

Part of what Oro rituals were for in my village was to appease the gods during hunting seasons and to educate all hunters on signs to look for especially when group-hunting to prevent accidents – Worthwhile rituals I think.

* Women must not see Oro – *Obinrin kii r’oro.

Kano and The Paradox of High Divorce Rate

Juju Films

In December 2013 Kano State governor, Mr. Rabiu Kwankwaso announced the state had spent ₦250k per couple on mass marriages for 1,111 divorced women. This is an attempt by the state government to intervene in the ever-increasing population of divorced women in the state. The matchmaking process included screening for HIV/AIDS and interviewing potentials suitors for individuals.

Just over a week ago, the new Emir of Kano Mallam Muhammad Sanusi II stated at a meeting that he would like to see divorce rates in Kano brought under control. His proposal was to have stiffer penalties for men that will prohibit them from seeking divorce based on minor excuses and complaints that could have been easily sorted among couples.

In his interview with BBC editor Mansur Liman, the Emir highlights child bride issue, lack of education for girls, lack of respect for women’s consent in their choice of whom to marry…

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1987 – School interhouse sports cancelled for the king

Our Lady’s Girls High was a purpose-built school by the Catholic missionaries. The school has all the department and facilities required of a decent school. It started as a boarding school and housed many girls from all around the country – a pride of the surrounding communities. OLGHS Modakeke has it brother school at Ile Ife – St John’s school for boys. Both schools, a couple of miles apart must have been put in these locations when peace existed in the region and a strategic move to foster more and better relationship between the two communities.

After the independence, a lot changed in Nigeria as a whole, part of which was the government taking over of missionary schools. However, the teachers in charge of Our Lady’s (as locally called) and St John’s did the hand overs gradually to ensure continuity in the culture of education they worked hard to build. One of the things that happened to Our Lady’s was making it a day school so as to accommodate more students. All seems to be gone well with this change.

Oba Okunade Sijuade assumed his throne in late 1980s. It should be a thing of joy in the region however, him being the king  affected everyone and everything around the two communities and education was not important enough to be spared of the new king resentment towards his neighbours.

By 1987, we had a new principal at Our Lady’s. I don’t remember her name but she was a delight. She saw every child in the school as capable and talented individuals, spoke so softly that you can barely see her lips moving but yet her words echoed in our ears. She once made the whole school brought our chairs into the assembly ground so she could teach us how to sit properly, we initially thought she was crazy but everyone was grateful for the lesson learnt that day. She was a complete opposite of Mrs Cruella – a new principal that I will have to live with a few months down the line.

Mrs *Iwarere was determined to bring the lost glory of the school back, so she wanted the school to do Interhouse Sports. Our sports  head, Mrs Sheba was fantastic. She was happy to put her skills to good use, she had a team of about five teachers at the time, all worked so hard training us. Ruth eleja in my class was the fastest on tracks ever – just like the wind. She had competed and won lots of medals from schools around us. I have never been in any competition but not too bad with volleyball – I was in a Yellow House and really proud of myself and looking forward to the event. It will be the first time in my life to play competitive sports against kids from other schools. The spirit was high, everyone put lots of efforts into doing their very best.

Two weeks to the big day, all of our hopes was dashed right in front of our eyes. We are a few hundred children in my school, age between 12 and eighteen years old – we just wanted to have fun and to show off our skills to our families and friends – Oba Sijuade crushed our hopes with no remorse.

When children’s happiness meant nothing to the king – well not his children.

My school was situated in the heart of Modakeke. On all occasions my school was addressed as OLGHS Modakeke, Ile Ife. This was completely fine with Oba Aderemi however, Oba Okunade would have none of that, he was determined to cause argument where none expected/existed. He insisted he did not want the name Modakeke appeared at all on all the programs for the event. There were lots of going back and forth on this and eventually he ordered the event not to take place at all. Lots of outcry about this however, maintaining peace in the region is important as the safety of the students could no longer be guaranteed – so my Interhouse Sport was cancelled to make the king happy.

Mrs Iwarere reportedly was a returnee Diasporan, a beneficiary of a great education my school once offered hence her passion to put school children and their education first. She was very sad after this unfortunate event and left my school shortly after – we all missed her dearly.

Oba Okunade Sijuade was 57 in 1987, now twenty-seven years later, not much has changed in his mission of subduing everything and everyone in Modakeke. See here and here

I am a yesterday child just like Boko Haram today’s children. I am blessed that I no longer feel shaken up with anger when I think of these events, not everyone is like this today – something for our elders, kings and leaders to think about.

*Name I give to my nice school principal

Inspiring teachers


Do you remember a teacher/s from your school days that you admire because they imparted you in a positive way and still remember them today?

Rita Pierson’s talk reminds me of Mrs Adeniran from my primary school days, she was my very first class teacher – caring and always took interest in her pupils work. At the end of primary one, Mrs Adeniran came to my primary two class teacher to say my friend and I were special pupils so to look after us – I was not sure what that meant but I felt special and always tried to be more attentive in class as I didn’t want to let Mrs Adeniran down – the memory lives on. How I wish all my teachers were like Mrs Adeniran, oh well, I can be Mrs Adeniran to younger people around me now, I suppose.

Have you ever had a teacher that you really liked?

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Derogatory attitude towards rape victims in Nigeria


There are lots of success stories about home, Nigeria and sometimes it is enough to be grateful for how fortunate we are that we are able to survive amid all the atrocities around. People tell you that we have a lot to be grateful for so we should stop moaning and focus on all that is going well, that is true, we are happy and could pretend all is well even though girls the size of half of a village are still held captives under BH. What do we do though, when we try so hard to focus on the good news of our society but the bad news knock us back 20 steps down…

Speaking recently with a friend, he thought rape case in Nigeria is relatively new. Then I narrated the story of my friend’s sister who was gang raped in 1987 when she was in secondary school in my…

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Tracing black roots to Yorubaland

It must have been such a fascinating experience for the blacks around the globe wanting to trace where their great grandparents were from. I know I would be extremely excited, but will I be able to swallow the truths of the so-called roots especially if it is still as oppressing as it were before and after the transatlantic slave trade?

In April this year I was at a three-day conference, among the attendees were two guests from Trinidad and Tobago. At the end of the second day, I had chance to chat briefly with them, they were excited coming to Yorubaland for the first time. The lady among the two narrated excitedly all that they do in Trinidad that is so similar to ours – the masquerade, the Sango and many traditions that is slowly disappearing in today’s Yorubaland. The man was equally excited, they had plans to visit lots of places and of course the Orisun (source) of Yoruba people which is supposedly Ile Ife.

If this step of reconnecting with roots brings joy – I am glad to be one of the first few of Yoruba they met, I thought to myself.

In my hotel room that evening I remember my good friend Eve, whom I met 14 years ago at work, we hit it off from the first day, family talks is central to our conversations – our ups and lows. Both of our parents are of about the same age. Our family settings bear so much resemblance that it is hard to believe we are from different continents, hers in Trinidad – I have met both of her parents, mine in Nigeria – she met one of mine. I have joked with Eve several times that her great grandparents were the lucky ones to have made ‘the boat,’ this is because Eve was shocked the first time I narrated the land grabbing crisis I grew up with and that it is still ongoing, the exercise that was meant to rid of a group of people using violence initiated by Ooni Sijuade.

It is worth noting that slavery was part of Yoruba culture well before the transatlantic Slave Trade began. And also that during the Slave Trade, African Merchants played significant roles and profited from the trade. Most of the active merchants in Nigeria were the royal families, they owned slaves of their own, they knew the groups to select from. Slave Trade has been banned around the world for a long time now however, a few royal families in Yorubaland still hold on tightly to the inhumane traditions by way of extortion or outright land grabbing.

Just noticing this on BBC and Nigeria is one of the few countries who still practice systematic slave trade, in my case it is between Ile Ife and Modakeke.

Please stay tuned for details on recent development.

About my new Trini friends – they talked about Opa Oranmiyan, they talked about the palace, which Palace?  I itched to inform them that for the most part of my life, I lived less than four miles to the palace but never visited for the fear of being tied up. 

I decided I’d be a very good girl so I talked about all that is pleasant about our Yoruba heritage – I encouraged them to visit the Erin Ijesa Waterfalls, Osun State and Ikogosi Springs, Ekiti state, and if they had more time Atakumosa Palace is a good place to stop by – all good.

No way am going to ruin their big trip to the roots – after all they are more likely to be my long-lost cousins.

Absolute power of a Yoruba king

*Aroba ni baba itan. Most of Yoruba stories are orally based, this no doubt leave room for manipulations of narrative, each time a new person tells a common story, there is always key points missing and in place will be additional information based on the narrator’s mood. Because of this I take some of past history with a grain of salt – they are Chinese whispers at best.

In 2004, I decided to visit Ogunsua of Modakeke, Oba Francis Adedoyin. The sole purpose of my visit was to learn more about my town and its relationship with Ile Ife. How it all started and how long are we going to remain in our situation of being strangers with no entitlement to farmland. I wanted to understand some of the questions that keep popping up in my young person’s head – I tried to shake them off and just ‘get on with it’ but I could not because the reminders were too compelling to ignore.

I was really impressed with my king, the fact he was educated was added pleasure listening to him. Despite no prior appointment, he was accommodating answering my questions. Oba Francis Adedoyin expressed his joy seeing a daughter of the soil interested in our story. Glad I made the visit.

A few days after the visit, I sat alone in my father’s backyard, listening to the recorded conversation. At the end of the tape, I have never felt so depressed in my life. It is all wrong – I said to myself. I saw no escape in the rat trap. I blamed the universe. I blamed my great grandparents for their choosing career of On the Road Warriors – settling wherever their help is needed. Then I blamed God for making my parents a couple, them being together is fantastic but why do they both have to be from Modakeke?  No where to run.

I wrote the story down as told in Yoruba, also translated to English.

So I decided to tell Modakeke and Ile Ife story based on what I have seen and lived through since 1980 when Oba Sijuade was crowned – better for my generation this way, we can not keep suffering from the decisions our grandparents made which I believed would have been mutual at the time. We deserved to be treated like a person we are NOT 300 year old On the Road Fighters.

All royal families around the world have lots of not very nice stories about them, some gruesome, however, today things are changing fast so are the attitude of royals around the world – mostly for the better, appreciating humanity rather than suppressing everyone around them.

I wish this is the case for Modakeke and Ife. Today, Ife-Ife is still as oppressing as it has always been, only that it is subtle, perpetual killings still go on, chasing of Modakeke’s farmers still is the norm, imposing non local indigenes as chiefs is the new addition to penetrate into Modakeke.

Oba Sijuade is 84 years old now, but *Oka ti b’imo s’ile, o ti b’oro.

Of course I am aware of the danger that comes with talking about the truth of Modakeke and Ile Ife relationship especially when mentioning the *Oluaye of Ife. I know exactly what happened to my uncle – he was burnt with him in his house. I know what happened to Ade, my childhood friend – he was shot during 1997 crisis and died of the gun wound. I know what happened to my extended family at Ogudu village – they were cut into pieces in the early hour of the morning and a few that escaped still live with the horror and now wander the streets with no land to farm.

This is my stand now – Joy runs deeper than despair by Corrie ten Boom. I am obliged to credit Elaine Random Thoughts as I learn about this wonderful quote of from her blog, thank you Elaine.


*Oka ti b’imo s’ile, o ti b’oro – Baby cobra is as poisonous as the parents

* Oluaye – Owner of the world (Irony)

*Aroba ni baba itan – stories are at its best when retold (or something like that)

The Village Leper

Juju Films

Mama Jide was a leper. She was not always like that. By the time I was old enough to notice she was different, her ten fingers and toes were all gone and moving about was labored. Mama Jide attended church regularly. Her toes left dark moist stains on the concrete where she sat, because of this she sat on the same spot everytime and if she didn’t come to church, her space was always left vacant. I have never seen her anywhere in the village not even during any of the festivals. Her outing was usually from home to church, a distance of about 200meters.

By the time I was a teenager, Mama Jide could no longer join in church services, she was just too weak. She was lucky I am told, she should have been living at Egan (isolated area, two miles away from regular human contact). Mama Jide…

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GEJ – My favourite Nigeria president of recent years

I’ve got to give it to our sitting president, Goodluck Jonathan. He is the best president that I have ever had in recent times. He has never failed to consistently keep Nigerians interested in their country welfare. Who in the recent year has maintained such a high tempo, all in disastrous way like GEJ? No one, I’d say.

GEJ hunchback, dull look – that earned him a ‘clueless’ president ever, mumbling when talking about very important issues or making unexpected decisions that is worse than the previous – GEJ was not faking it, that is him in all his entirely.

A ko le gbin cocoa ka ka bara lori re – You can not plant cocoa and expect to harvest melon from the same tree.

This year alone –

– GEJ said he has always treated Boko Haram issue with kid’s glove – his words not mine. It takes GEJ 2 weeks to make a statement after over 200 students were abducted life from their dormitory. A couple of weeks later, GEJ had elaborate wedding for his adopted daughter, the minister at the wedding was one of the Nigerians sensational pastors aka GO of Redeemed Church. Has anything changed, No. Chibok girls still missing.

– Nigerians were outraged early in the year by the Centenary ceremony, people did not think we have anything to show for the 100 years after 1914 amalgamation. Those that were honoured included all Nigerians criminals both dead and alive. Professor Soyinka rejected the insult and sent a letter – a letter I believe GEJ could never comprehend because he is on the other side of reality.

Just as Nigerians were catching up on the breaths, GEJ announced the plan for a National Conference (Confab) Another wahala as more than half of the delegates did not represent the population age we have today. Within three months that Confab lasted, 8 people died – some due to underline medical conditions, some old age and others combination of the two.

– GEJ during an interview stated that stealing is not corruption – people pitied him that he should not be talking as everything he says came out wrong, oh well, if you are a president you have to talk sometimes. And what he says is how he sees it.

– Nigerians loved to be seen as religious. So earlier on in the year, GEJ promised his gullible followers that he’d worship in different church every week for the rest of the year. He took several photos at Redeemed church. He played well to Nigerians ignorance, well he is the king of that.

– TB Joshua, another Nigeria glorified councillor cum reverend last week killed at least 80 people at his church, not with a  gun. His church buildings in Lagos was originally two storeys. He raised the building to five using the same foundation without additional structural walls to support the heavy loads. This is a commercial building where thousand of people trudge weekly. The building collapsed, killed scores of people. This happened last week and yet no government officials sees any reason to arrest the prophet yet and definitely not deemed important enough to close the church for proper forensic test.

– A few days ago an aircraft belonging to the president of Christian Association of Nigeria, Mr Oritsejafor was caught in South Africa with $10million cash in the aircraft, the cash was said to be for buying weapons. The Israelis in the aircraft claimed to have rented the plane from Mr Oritsejafor. Well, Mr Oritsejafor’s body guards that he paraded on the streets were Israelis and this is a pastor whom Millions of Nigerians listened to. He is also close friend of GEJ so the case is likely go down same way as others.

– GEJ plays dumb to everything that is important and yet as a president he did not know where Boko Haram is located the Borno area. Yet pays a Washington-based PR firm $1.5 million to damage-repair him to Nigerians. And same GEJ only two weeks ago mocked Chibok girls by using hashtag #Bringbackourgoodluck to promote his 2015 reelection.

Maybe he wasn’t playing dumb afterall.


Effects of war on Nigeria yesterday children

When time is not enough to heal wounds – War Wounds.

If time can indeed heal all wounds, I would not remember the case of Amina each time I think of Boko Haram especially the effects of mindless killings on children and the youths when tomorrow gets here. Today is my tomorrow and the wounds are still raw because no justice has been served and perpetual killing/injustice is still going on. Their tomorrow will come fast and perhaps may react differently. Those who have been killed, were gone. Those who faced daily torture especially the abducted girls of Chibok whether sold out as child-bride or (finger-crossed) released to their family members, will have the rest of their lives to tell the tales.

In a country like mine, human lives were the cheapest, sad but that is the truth. With the resent twist about the news of powerful Nigerians being the main sponsors of BH – No surprises.

Most of the people involved in BH were youths, they are young and for the reasons best known to them, they allowed “big” people to manipulate them into killing their own kins, friends, neighbours and school mates.

I know that GEJ, my president is somewhere still handling Boko Haram case with kid’s glove – he said this himself a few months back.

Amina and I attended the same secondary school, she was very outgoing with lots of friends. Both of her parents were from *Ile Ife but they decided to build their mansion in Modakeke. Ordinarily, there is nothing wrong in people having a home where they liked especially when they have paid all their dues. One problem here was that Modakeke and Ile-Ife were like Omo iya *awusa. (loosely means siblings that passionately hated each other). Amina’s parents made this decision in the late 1970s when everyone in the area thought life will forever be peaceful. Their house was one of the few beautiful ones in town at the time, even today several decades later, Amina’s house still stands out.

By December 1,  1980, everything changed. A new king installed in Ile Ife.

This is where Amina’s story came in. For me I already knew I was in hot soup since I was about seven years old. I knew how terrible it was to have both parents being native of the same town – no where to run, we were doomed and just lived by the mercy of the new Ife king – whose only mission in life was to see the end of every living soul that belonged to Modakeke or if that failed, to take away all their farmlands so as to keep them as servants forever – this is real. As it turned out it was not that easy to wipe out everyone in a group but easier to take over their livelihoods forcefully. This is where the torments begins.

As terrible as this sounds, I was a bit happy and felt safe as I was among a group of people whose lives were filled with daily paralysing despair – we had similar fate.

Amina’s story was different. Her family lived in the middle of Modakeke. She and her siblings knew no other place since they were born. They of course could have run as it will only take just about 20minutes power-walk to be in safe haven of Ile Ife – but they did not.

Since December 1980, there has always been one thing or the other that leads to displacement of people usually chasing them out of their farmlands in broad day lights and when resistance of any kind is perceived, the attackers will come around first thing in the morning usually around 5am and just hack/gun them all – the aim was to take away their farmlands anyways, either dead or alive means nothing to the perpetrators.

Amina’s story was in early 1990’s. Here is the dilemma for Amina who was only sixteen years old at the time and her brother 14 years old:

– They needed to protect their house, if they run away their mansion is likely to be razed to the ground as they may be seen as enemy within.


– They could run to Ile Ife where their extended families were, but really have no place to live there, they will be leaving their home and livelihood behind.

Amina’s father was away on business. Amina and Tajudeen though children were forced to make decision – they chose to stay and defend their home and support the people whom they have known all their lives.

Why am I relating Boko Haram with Modakeke and Ife crisis?

-Both heavily involved youths as casualties and as fighters

– In both cases youths are brainwashed to kill their own kind

– In both cases Elders/royals that were meant to protect/educate/enlighten were the monsters, keeping their own children away and wasting other people lives

– Both started as nursed hatred/revenge then get political therefore government fold their hands and pretended all is well.



*Awusa = Walnut. Nigeria walnut is different from western walnut. When broken, there is a thin layer of cover between two halves that prevent one from touching the other.

*Ife and Modakeke belonged to the same ethnic group, spoke the same language albeit slightly different accents.

Proximity of Modakeke and Ile Ife – Imagine London and Kent or Seattle and Belleveu in WA – so no defines boundaries.